The marketing mix (also known as the 4 Ps) is a foundation model for businesses. The marketing mix has been defined as the “set of marketing tools that the firm uses to pursue its marketing objectives in the target market”. Thus the marketing mix refers to four broad levels of marketing decision, namely: product, price, place, and promotion. Marketing practice has been occurring for millennia, but marketing theory emerged in the early twentieth century. The contemporary marketing mix, or the 4 Ps, which has become the dominant framework for marketing management decisions, was first published in 1960. In services marketing, an extended marketing mix is used, typically comprising 7 Ps, made up of the original 4 Ps extended by process, people, and physical evidence. Occasionally service marketers will refer to 8 Ps, comprising these 7 Ps plus performance.In the 1990s, the model of 4 Cs was introduced as a more customer-driven replacement of the 4 Ps.
There are two theories based on 4 Cs: Lauterborn’s 4 Cs (consumer, cost, convenience, and communication), and Shimizu’s 4 Cs (commodity, cost, channel, and communication).
Given the valuation of customers towards potential product attributes (in any category, e.g. product, promotion, etc.) and the attributes of the products sold by other companies, the problem of selecting the attributes of a product to maximize the number of customers preferring it is a computationally intractable problem.The correct arrangement of marketing mix by enterprise marketing managers plays an important role in the success of corporate marketing:
develop strengths and avoid weaknesses
strengthen the competitiveness and adaptability of enterprises
make the internal departments of the enterprise work closely together

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